Human trafficking is part of the new terminology in presenting the problems of enslavement of people. Therefore, the simplest definition of this term is "human trafficking, especially trafficking in women and children, is trafficking in human misery, and is considered one of the greatest crimes of our time". "Human trafficking " mean the recruitment, transportation, transfer, harboring of persons by means of threat or by use of force or other forms of coercion, of abduction, fraud, deception, abuse of power or of a position of vulnerability, giving or receiving of payments or benefits to achieve the consent of the person who has control over another person, for the purpose of exploitation“. (Palermo protocol, article 3, UN). Term of human trafficking also includes the following concepts of criminal offenses under the law of Bosnia and Herzegovina: enslavement and transportation of slaves, people smuggling, international recruitment for prostitution and unlawful deprivation of personal documents. This term also includes trafficking crimes by the Criminal Laws of the Entities and Brčko District of Bosnia and Herzegovina such as prostitution, exploitation of children for pornography, production and viewing of child pornography, solicitation on prostitution, and introducing pornography to the child.

Although the problem of human trafficking is attracting increased attention in the political field for the past couple of years, it is still very far from the solution. The international nature of this phenomenon, porous and uncertain borders, complex causes and insufficient awareness of the existence of human trafficking, with inadequate and inconsistent criminal laws, are making difficult to combat this type of crime. Such approach prevents the exercise of basic human rights for victims of trafficking, as well as the implementation of the necessary measures for prevention.

Cases of human trafficking are often cross-border in nature. Bosnia and Herzegovina is usually a country of transit or destination for victims coming from Eastern Europe. However, over the past few years, a new phenomenon appeared in Bosnia and Herzegovina - trafficking in women and girls who are recruited in the chain of human trafficking at the local level, for the purpose of sexual exploitation in other parts of the country. While the number of identified foreign victims is in steady decline, the number of citizens of Bosnia and Herzegovina who were identified as victims of trafficking within the borders of Bosnia and Herzegovina is on the rise. The vast majority of victims of human trafficking in Bosnia and Herzegovina is recruited and become trafficked for sexual exploitation. Also, sporadic cases of people trafficked for forced labor, organized begging and arranged marriages, have been registered. The issue of labor exploitation and begging has not been treated adequately in the past. For this reason, these problems are still present in Bosnia and Herzegovina, especially the problem of begging, which is primarily a side effect of poverty in the country. The number of children working on the streets is constantly growing due to the lack of effective mechanisms for the protection by the relevant authorities, especially among the Roma population. When it comes to the issue of children begging – children who work on the street, this problem is not always related to sexual abuse cases and is more related to economic exploitation – forced labor – begging, neglect and abandonment. Most often members of the Roma minority in Bosnia are exposed to this type of abuse of women and children.

Bosnia and Herzegovina is actively working to prevent and combat human trafficking. In the framework of the Council of Ministers and the Ministry of Security BH, there is a Department for combat against human trafficking and illegal migration, and at the head of it there is the State coordinator for combating human trafficking and illegal migration. This Department coordinates the activities of all state and entity authorities and institutions as well as non-governmental organizations involved in the fight against human trafficking and direct assistance to victims and witnesses of human trafficking. In the past few years, Bosnia and Herzegovina has adopted a number of important documents, regulations, manuals and guidelines for the fight against human trafficking and direct assistance to victims.

Association "New Generation" is active in the fight against human trafficking from 2005th, especially through the activities of Reception center for children, which is realized together with the PI Centre for Social Work Banja Luka, and which provides direct assistance to children who have been in any way abused or exploited. Also, through the Day care center for street children, we are working preventively in order to prevent children who are at risk of becoming victims of trafficking, keep them safe, and save them from traffickers. “Nova generacija” is a member of the Regional Monitoring Team for the fight against human trafficking, and many other activities that are actively contributing to the fight against human trafficking in the country. As another contribution, “Nova generacija” began to implement activities for opening of the Safe house for children victims of sexual abuse and trafficking.

For more useful information, as well as access to mentioned documents, we give you the links below.

• Department for combat against human trafficking and illegal migration:
• Manual for direct assistance to victims of trafficking
• Guidelines on the treatment with victims of human trafficking
• Practicum for social workers
• Handbook for professionals to protect children from trafficking
• Safe child – a web site for the fight against child pornography

Labour and sexual exploitation - How to protect yourself?

There are things to consider when looking for a job abroad. One of the methods of recruitment used by those who traffic human beings is to offer a job with good earnings, attractive location, favourable conditions and the like. In fact, it can be quite the opposite situation from above. Traffickers make a deal that sounds reasonable about the travel costs and documents for travelling and employment, but upon arrival the victim is placed in the position of a debt-payer. The victim is to pay the debt, food, lodging and other expenses. These debts are without rules and the victim ends up in a devious circle of trying to pay of the debts while getting more into debt with the traders. This debt-bondage serves as a way to blackmail and manipulate the victim to work.
Therefore, it is always good to make sure that the job offered really exists, and that the migration process is carried out in a lawful manner. Never give your passport / ID to the person who offers you a job, because it is one of the ways that traders use in controlling victims. Even if you know the person who is offering the job, you need to pay attention to these warnings. The traders are often people the victims know personally or through friends and family.
The most common jobs advertised are babysitting, modelling, cleaning jobs, housekeeping and taking care of elderly, and as well jobs in factories. Be sceptical about the advertisements in newspapers offering very attractive work opportunities for good profit which do not provide enough information. For well-paid jobs abroad you usually need a proper education and a diploma. Traders are to be known to use personal ads also as a contact-point with the victims.
Traffickers use threats, violence, isolation, confinement and other forms of coercion and deception in order to control the victim. In order to get the victim to submit and not to try to escape, the traffickers can threat to hurt the victim’s family or friends. The victims are in most cases physically and mentally abused, raped, restricted in their movements and in their communications with third parties.
Another way to lure the girls into forced prostitution is with emotional manipulation. This is done by young men ("lover boys") who manipulate young girls by being kind, helpful, understanding and promising marriage and wonderful life and work abroad. Girls fall in love and often throw away everything else in order to “build a life” with this man. The promised life abroad turns out to be forced prostitution and the girl is left in the hands of the traffickers. The girl disappears without a trace.
These warnings may sound like things that ' can never happen to me " but it is good to keep in mind that these types of scenarios are realistic and happening in our environment. The key is to be aware of the potential risks and dangers in pursuing a dream job abroad. If you hear someone talking about lucrative working possibilities in another country insist them to check all information about the job and the employer, about the payments and accommodation and other relevant things. Passport is important and never give it to a third party and have it always with you. It is advisable to carry at least one copy of your passport in a safe place, if you happen to lose the real one. Only sign contracts that you understand fully and never sign contracts in a foreign language to you. For further information on the employer, information about migration processes and general advice you can contact the embassy of the country. If you are abroad, you can always seek help from your own embassy.

Children begging – general

In many cities begging children are very evident. Children begging on the streets are mostly of Roma origin. However it is important to understand that begging and crime are not a part of the Roma culture. Stereotypes and prejudices about the Roma only encourage this negative image. What people may not know about the problem of beggary, both children and adults, is that behind it there is often an organized criminal group. The money that the children get does not go to their own needs but rather to these organized criminals. These criminal groups rent or buy children for begging or arranged marriages. They use violence and coercion to control children, women and the elderly. Sometimes the organised begging is hidden behind playing of musical instruments in the streets or selling small items. Children who are involved in begging are transported often from city to city, to events and fairs where there are tourists and a lot of people.
These trafficked children live in poor conditions, with little nutrition, poor hygiene, often with an inadequate wardrobe for weather and ill-fitting sizes of clothing. Such maintenance status of children arouses pity in citizens and they give them money. By giving them money you become a link in the chain of organised crime and degrade the position of children in the society. One of the reasons why people give money to children caught in vagrancy and begging is that people know that children can face violence if they do not make a sufficient amount of money. However giving money only encourages begging and organized criminal groups seek to raise empathy among citizens and manipulate their emotions for more profit.
Roma children, who are involved in the life and work on the streets, are legally invisible which mean they are not registered to the registry of births. Therefore they are unable to exercise their legally protected rights: the right to education, health and social protection, the right to family, the right to play and have a safe childhood.
It is essential that when coming in contact with a person begging or offering car washing services or other work on the streets, you contact the local police station on 122 or Crime Stoppers number 080 020 505.
If you see a child begging for money, it is best to call the police. In this way, a child can be saved from the streets and brought to a safe house where the child is cared for and helped further. Every child has the right to a childhood.


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